Until the end of 320 BC in Athens, the Solid wastes where thrown unpavedly on the open fields and were getting accumulated either on paths, patches or on the grounds vigorously. However when such things were performed daily, so at the end a law forbidding about these throwings were made and Become a blessing for the whole ecology. But we shouldn't forget that Islam had already given us lessons and teaches the concepts regarding Environment protection and management of solid waste in the proper way.
After then the system of waste removal and management Starts in then Greece cites and in the Romans the property Holders were responsible for cleaning their Respective areas or streets while making any speciality of their things. But these things were not so organized and were in some sort of haphazard manner, However the Organised system were associated only with state sponsored events not else than that. And while performing any kind of disposal, it was collected and then put into the open pits just outside communities. But with the going time efforts were made more and the disposal was done far from population area.
This very small contribution or works regarding disposal also has start to decline when the Rome Empire got vanished. Until 14th century scavengers where given the job to dispose wastes or put them in the pits but outside city & in 1714 England city contained some official scavengers. And at the end of 18th century, American municipal system founded 1st garbage centre in the Boston in New York city and Philadelphia. Within these systems, the waste disposal things were still crude and Rudimentary but the dumping of wastes was just wondering by putting them in the pits along river banks.
Developments in the waste management:
A mature and responsible approach about the management of solid wastes begin in the later part of 19th century, as Watertight cans were used to collect the solid waste and in many areas of United States Sturdier vehicles were used to amass & transport solid wastes at Fixed patches. However a significant and valuable development was seen regarding the waste management, when the city of England got the construction of first refuse incinerator in the year if 1874. And by the beginning of 20th century, 15% of American Big cities has got incinerating plants, however many are using previous equipment but the weightage of disposal is same.
While the going of time, the technology management of wastes also has been getting advanced and the many more instruments has come between the inception and disposal of wastes, like garbage grinders , compaction trucks and the pneumatic pipe system came into place, as disposing of wastes in the open fields creates more pollution, havocs Environment & jeopardized health of the living beings. For this a new system of has been processed, which is more advanced and shield guard for any inconvenience of Environment, i.e. sanitary landfill system.
This system Replaces the incinerations and dumping of wastes in open, which is really a mammoth system to mitigate adulterate of Environment. However the use of sanitary landfills protects and guards Environment from the noxious effects as emitted by Incinerators and dumping and these landfills are well equipped. Now a days, the Incinerators are also made in such form, which deplete heats to go outside and have extensive air pollution control devices to satisfy the stringent quality of air. And now in the modern times, solid waste management plants are emphasized with recycling and waste reduction chambers at the sources.
Solid waste characteristics:
There are different kinds of solid wastes due to its different source of emitting and exemption. These wastes may be from Residential houses , commercial properties, industries, institutions etc. However the main character and most decisive character which will make huge difference between them is, hazardous behaviour and non-hazardous nature.
The hazardous wastes are collected in the proper paved way, then disposed or recycled in the keen approach, a small mis handle may Cause huge or grieve damage, so one has to been very heedful and perform these things in well subordination and technological ways. These hazardous have good sources but not as much as non-hazardous have, because these are emitted from many and Common sources, so for a Common management and at individual level one can easily manage non-hazardous wastes, if follow the procedure in the very ethic way.
The non-hazardous wastes while collected, should be segregated and divide them into wet and dry chambers, those who are wet should get decomposed into some manure form but those which are dry should be used for some other purpose after recycling.
This may also contain the garbage and rubbish components , however the garbage is compositable while as the trash or we can say rubbish is recycled and then Turned for other equipment, as they aren't hazardous, so those can be recycled and then reused for other purposes. Such like trash adds about 20% of MSW in the USA in the municipal solid wastes. Such kind of waste is specifically called as Construction and demolition ( C & D) process and are Verily process across many developed nations.
Collecting and Transportation:
The solid wastes coming from houses or municipal means or any other means must be collected in healthy, hygienic way, so that the Environment will remain safe, neat and organized. However this very process is really expensive in labour basis but it has much more benefits by collected them in the advanced and technology methods. For the collection of the wastes, Respective authorities should use the advanced systems like pneumatic pipes, compactors. Also loading can be done from the front, rare side & compaction depletes the size of wastes and weight too.
While opting such advanced technology in the rural areas, it becomes very much costly because those areas are low in population density and it needs lot of labour and work, thus becomes more expensive. The refuse collection should occur after small regular intervals as this garbage is degradable so it emits foul air, which may adulterate Environment and also within these interval days, the refuse is reduced in the size and then it will become easy to handle it.
A transfer station means; the central facility which gets refuse from many other vehicles which can be called primary vehicles, when the community or any other patch doesn't contain final destination near . It may be some tractor like or other vehicles which could hold 70 cubic metres of uncomposed wastes . And in many cities compact regional compactors are used because of closed lids and can unload by himself. These like closed compact systems are also used because of well-equipped ejector systems and closed systems. In short we can say, the vehicles are first emptied in the pit then the refuse or wastes are hoisted by machinery into ahead transfer station.
Treatment and Disposal:
When the solid or municipal wastes are collected , they are then treated in order to minimise the size, so that they could be in the organised manner and in high quantity. It have more beneficial assertions like reduced in volume, weight and few other mixtures can be separated. So this treatment changes the behaviour, which really gives some ideas about reuse and recycle things. In the process of Reducing size and volume, it requires many processes like; Incineration.
Though we can reduce the size and volume by the burning process also but this process is very noxious, as it adds greenhouse gases in the atmosphere, so this burning is not suitable way of reducing size. And the other part called as fly ash should be maintained in the balanced way within incinerator, these incinerator should be guarded with high quality emission control devices, so that these may not sting atmosphere.
Such devices should have modern equipment of controlling like electrostatic precipitator, gas scrubbers and many other, so that it could shield the adulteration of Environment. In the advanced incinerators, the wastes are burnt inside and the combustible portion admixes with oxygen , emits mostly CO2, water vapour and heat but are processed in a very controlled equipment.
Modern day incinerator are guarded with well desired receiving and burring equipment, which can burn the refuses in the easy way and can hold one day refuse in a single attempt by having storage pit and stropping area. It's taken out from the pit by the help of crane and is then putted into hopper and chute, charging in the grate in the furnace. The combustion which is processed in these furnaces are grouped into processes, primary & secondary.
In the primary combustion the refuses are turned dry by driven out moisture and then volatized, in the secondary the remaining unburnt residues are oxidized, eliminated, exhausted. In order to make both these processes very effective, it requires enough oxygen, which can be easily given by the mixing oxygen with refuse through the grates and admitted above. However the continual supply of air can be maintained by making natural draft through forced draft fans.
Another method through which refuse can be treated, as refuse contains both kinds of matter organic as well as inorganic, However organic is decomposable, so this can be separated and putting into decomposition process by the use of microbes. This can reduce the volume and size by about 50% and then can be used for manure over the lands. During this process both types of wastes like garbage & sludge can be recycled & processed, with this the application of incineration may increase Up to good height.
Sorting and Sherding: The decomposable wastes are separated in the refuse either on the basis of size, density, volume etc and are divided into glasses, metals and inorganic materials. These are done through physical separation or by the use of mechanical engineering magnetic properties or density. The shredding is processed by hammering and rotatory approaches, reduces the size and results in the uniform mass of material.
Sanitary Landfills: This is the most common and acceptable method to deal with the refuse for management of wastes. A hygienic area which is being selected for the deposition of refuses and is far away from the community population, also should be in the direction where the wind can go from population community towards that, so that foul air can't bear to community. While burring the wastes, the pit shouldn't be so deep as to get contacted with the water table , as it's secretion may profane water.
To design such system, one has to liner the bottom and make decision on the engineer confab based, then it will be more reliable and trustworthy towards Environment as well as for decomposition. The landfill surfaces Lucy be capped with impermeable covers to keep away from surface run off and bottom should be lined with plastic membranes too, which will not allow secretion downward. This very system will be reliable and accurate for the decomposition of wastes.